MIDDLE SCHOOL COURSES

Chinese IA

Chinese IA is an introduction to Mandarin Chinese. It provides students with basic knowledge of Pinyin, daily conversational vocabulary, Chinese characters, and grammar. The course is designed to develop students' listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, although emphasis is placed on speaking. Pronunciation and writing of Pinyin is taught and practiced throughout the year. Discussion topics relate to daily life as students participate in situational conversations and make presentations. Students also are introduced to the Chinese writing system, including basic strokes, stroke order, radicals, and simple and useful Chinese characters. Chinese printed and audiovisual materials depict aspects of Chinese culture, including festivals, gestures, mannerisms, and schools.

Chinese IB

Chinese IB is a continuation of Chinese IA. Students build on their knowledge of daily conversational vocabulary, Chinese characters, and grammar. The course develops students' listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills, with emphasis placed on speaking and pronunciation. Topics related to daily life are discussed, and students prepare presentations and engage in situational conversations. Students continue to learn about the Chinese writing system, including stroke order, radicals, and basic Chinese characters. Chinese printed and audiovisual materials depict themes such as Chinese cuisine, community, hobbies, and weather. Prerequisite: Chinese IA.

Chinese IC

Students who have previous experience with spoken Chinese build vocabulary for daily conversation and learn basic characters for reading and writing in this introductory course. All four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) are developed, but the course emphasizes reading and writing. Topics related to student daily life are covered through communicative activities. Students learn how to type Chinese characters on computers and write them by hand. Prerequisite: Placement test.

Chinese I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to Chinese. It covers the curricula of Chinese IA and Chinese IB.

Chinese II

This course aims to strengthen students' knowledge of basic sentence structures, vocabulary, and speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. Students learn vocabulary to describe their experiences in daily situations. They also learn about Chinese cultural topics such as art, literature, and social customs. A supplementary book on Chinese culture is used to teach students reading strategies. Prerequisite: Chinese IC, Chinese IB, or Chinese I.

Chinese III Honors

This accelerated course prepares students to take Advanced Placement Chinese Language and Culture. Students learn over 350 new characters and continue to develop listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. Chinese email, news articles, and videos supplement the textbook to provide a realistic depiction of current Chinese society. Cultural studies of Chinese history, traditions, folk customs, the education system, contemporary economic issues, and politics frame the course content. Daily life and other topics covered in Chinese II are reviewed. By the end of the year, students can understand written and oral messages, develop dialogues, and write short messages and essays. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - Chinese II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - A- in Chinese II and permission of current instructor.

French IA

Students begin the formal study of French, developing listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills through multiple teaching approaches geared to their interests. They are introduced to French and French-speaking cultures and vocabulary, expressions, and grammatical structures for conversation and short written pieces through themes related to everyday life. Using sources intended for native speakers, such as video, audio, and web-based materials, students are exposed to French civilization and cross-cultural differences.

French IB

This course continues French IA's emphasis on listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Fundamental concepts, grammatical structures, as well as colloquial expressions and their usage are covered. Classes are conducted mainly in French. Written and oral compositions are assigned. Students are exposed to French culture and civilization, including history, art, everyday life, and the cultural diversity of the francophone world, through research projects and sources intended for native speakers such as videos and web-based materials. Prerequisite: French IA.

French I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to French. It covers the curricula of French IA and French IB.

French II

This course presents a more extensive study of grammatical structures, vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions of the spoken language. The class is conducted mainly in French, and students engage in conversations to provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions. They understand and interpret spoken and written French on a variety of topics. Readings emphasize and reinforce grammatical concepts as well as explore the different facets of French and francophone culture. Language laboratory sessions and/or online audio and oral activities are an integral part of the course. Written compositions and long readings paired with oral and written questions are required. Prerequisite: French IB or French I.

French III Honors

This course is designed for students demonstrating the interest and motivation to pursue more in-depth French studies. The program proceeds at a faster pace than French III and is conducted almost entirely in French. Students practice the skills of spoken and written French (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational) using materials from French television, movies, literary masterpieces, news articles, and songs by contemporary artists. Throughout the year, students develop and refine their command of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. This course is recommended for students interested in enrolling in Advanced Placement French Language and Culture because it provides specific tools needed for that course, such as how to interpret authentic sources and write French compositions. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - French II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - B in French II Honors or B+ in French II and permission of current instructor.

Latin IA

This course introduces students to Latin. Topics include the first three noun declensions, case usage, agreement of adjectives, the present and imperfect active indicative of all verb conjugations, the present active infinitive, and all principal parts of verbs. Latin is read aloud. Latin syntax and sentence structure and derivational morphology, with emphasis on the relationship between Latin and English, are stressed. Roman culture is addressed through creative projects on ancient geography, mythology and storytelling, Roman daily life, and other topics.

Latin IB

Students continue their introduction to essential concepts of the language. Topics include pronouns and possession, the perfect-tense system, numerals, time and space constructions, the fourth and fifth declensions, and a comparison of adjectives and adverbs. Reading skills are developed through literary analysis, and foundational vocabulary is emphasized. Latin derivational morphology is pursued further, focusing on the relationship between Latin and English. Students continue to explore Roman culture through hands-on projects. Prerequisite: Latin IA.

Latin I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to the Latin language and Roman culture. It covers the curricula of Latin IA and Latin IB.

Latin II

Students improve their reading and analytical skills by progressing toward authentic Latin texts and doing Latin composition exercises to develop mastery of Latin syntax. Vocabulary skills are improved with emphasis on derivational morphology. Advanced grammatical concepts are covered in detail, including relative clauses, participles and the ablative absolute construction, passive voice, subjunctive mood, and indirect statements. Cultural projects cover Roman politics and literature, preparing students to read the texts assigned in more advanced courses. Prerequisite: Latin IB or Latin I.

Latin III Honors

During the first semester, this course reviews vocabulary, grammar, and syntax presented in Latin IA, Latin IB, and Latin II using a literary-based approach to sharpen reading skills and the analysis of literary prose. The remaining uses of dependent subjunctive clauses and further uses of participles are introduced. The second semester covers advanced grammatical topics, including cum clauses, conditionals, gerunds and gerundives, and independent subjunctives, using Latin poetry in its original context. Authentic texts, including Vergil's Aeneid, Latin epigraphy, and other materials, are examined. This course proceeds at a faster pace, covers increasingly complex topics, and demands more reading of Latin texts than does the Latin III course. Students must do more work on their own and with less help from the instructor. Written quizzes on both previously seen and sight material and tests comprise more of the grade in Latin III Honors than in Latin III. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - Latin II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - A- in Latin II and permission of current instructor.

Spanish IA

Students begin a formal study of Spanish. Listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills are presented in real-world context. Students become familiar with standards of courtesy and appropriate greetings. They learn grammar and vocabulary to describe themselves, friends, and family and to discuss school life, sports, and leisure activities. Similarities and differences between U.S. and Hispanic cultures are also discussed. Interactive lessons, including the use of online text, video, audio, and oral activities, as well as materials intended for native Spanish-speaking audiences, familiarize students with the diversity of peoples and cultures that form the Spanish-speaking world.

Spanish IB

This course is a continuation of Spanish IA. A communicative approach to language learning is used to improve and increase students' listening, speaking, reading, writing, and study skills. Students explore the diverse cultures and peoples of the Spanish-speaking world. Students complete several projects pertaining to Spain and Latin America. In class, Spanish is the primary language spoken by both teacher and students. Prerequisite: Spanish IA.

Spanish I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to Spanish. It covers the curricula of Spanish IA and Spanish IB using a similar approach based on real-world tasks and cultural themes.

Spanish II

Students improve reading, listening, speaking, and writing skills. Moving at a faster pace, students strengthen their command of all topics introduced in Spanish IA and Spanish IB while expanding their vocabulary. Hispanic cultures, oral conversations, written compositions, and multimedia presentations are the foci of the program. Students practice using contextualized vocabulary and grammatical concepts creatively and accurately to complete communicative tasks. Prerequisite: Spanish IB or Spanish I.

Spanish III Honors

This course is designed for students demonstrating the interest and motivation to pursue more in-depth Spanish studies. The program proceeds at a faster pace than Spanish III and is conducted almost entirely in Spanish. Students practice the skills of spoken and written Spanish (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational) using materials from Spanish television, movies, literary works, news articles, and songs by contemporary artists. Students develop and refine their command of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. This course is recommended for students interested in enrolling in Advanced Placement Spanish Language and Culture because it provides specific tools needed for that course, such as how to interpret authentic sources and write persuasive essays in Spanish. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - Spanish II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - B in Spanish II Honors or B+ in Spanish II and permission of current instructor.

UPPER SCHOOL COURSES

Chinese I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to Chinese. It covers the curricula of Chinese IA and Chinese IB.

Chinese II

This course aims to strengthen students' knowledge of basic sentence structures, vocabulary, and speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills. Students learn vocabulary to describe their experiences in daily situations. They also learn about Chinese cultural topics such as art, literature, and social customs. A supplementary book on Chinese culture is used to teach students reading strategies. Prerequisite: Chinese IC, Chinese IB, or Chinese I.

Chinese III

Expanding on techniques used in Chinese II, this course further develops listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. Course materials include original Chinese literature and journalism as well as current Chinese language publications. Students watch television news reports, documentaries, and fragments of Chinese films, adding a strong cultural component to the course. Prerequisite: Chinese II.

Chinese III Honors

This accelerated course prepares students to take Advanced Placement Chinese Language and Culture. Students learn over 350 new characters and continue to develop listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills. Chinese email, news articles, and videos supplement the textbook to provide a realistic depiction of current Chinese society. Cultural studies of Chinese history, traditions, folk customs, the education system, contemporary economic issues, and politics frame the course content. Daily life and other topics covered in Chinese II are reviewed. By the end of the year, students can understand written and oral messages, develop dialogues, and write short messages and essays. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - Chinese II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - A- in Chinese II and permission of current instructor.

Chinese IV

Chinese IV strengthens students' language skills with advanced grammar and conversation on topics related to both Chinese and American cultures and international relations. Students should expect frequent reading and writing assignments. Prerequisite: Chinese III or Chinese III Honors and permission of current instructor.

Chinese V

The goal of this course is to deepen students' understanding of different aspects of China, including family, generational characteristics, traditional Chinese values, and current issues. The course also examines cultural topics related to Hong Kong and Taiwan. Listening comprehension and oral proficiency are emphasized and audio-visual materials are used extensively. Students are primarily graded on class discussions, class preparation, and understanding of the material. Prerequisite: Chinese IV or Advanced Placement Chinese Language and Culture and permission of current instructor.

AP Chinese Language and Culture

This course prepares students for the Advanced Placement Chinese Language and Culture examination. Vocabulary and grammar are reviewed, and proficiency in listening, reading, speaking, and writing in Chinese is achieved. Skills are practiced in interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational modes. Listening and reading comprehension are taught using materials from Chinese sources. Writing and speaking focus on communicating via story narrations, email exchanges, conversations on daily topics, and cultural presentations. Chinese cultural events also are reviewed. The class is rigorous, challenging, and proceeds at a fast pace, both in terms of in-class instruction and home/laboratory work. Prerequisite: B+ in Chinese III Honors or A in Chinese III and permission of current instructor.

Post-AP Chinese Literature and Culture Honors

This course, conducted exclusively in Mandarin, is designed for advanced Chinese-language students who wish to continue their studies in literature and culture. The course covers works of Chinese literature, the history of China, traditional and modern Chinese values, and entertainment. The focus is on enhancing students' listening, speaking, reading, writing, and critical thinking skills through class discussions, presentations, and assignments. Students are graded on class participation, assignments, quizzes, and examinations. Prerequisite: B in Advanced Placement Chinese Language and Culture and permission of current instructor.

French I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to French. It covers the curricula of French IA and French IB.

French II

This course presents a more extensive study of grammatical structures, vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions of the spoken language. The class is conducted mainly in French, and students engage in conversations to provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions. They understand and interpret spoken and written French on a variety of topics. Readings emphasize and reinforce grammatical concepts as well as explore the different facets of French and francophone culture. Language laboratory sessions and/or online audio and oral activities are an integral part of the course. Written compositions and long readings paired with oral and written questions are required. Prerequisite: French IB or French I.

French II Honors

This course is designed for students demonstrating the interest and motivation to pursue the study of French at a more accelerated pace. The class is conducted mainly in French. Students develop all modes of communication (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational) using audio, visual, and written sources intended for native speakers. Students move beyond talking about themselves and their immediate community to talking about ideas and problems that affect society and the world. They develop strategies for communicating exclusively in French and increase their knowledge of the francophone world and its cultures. Prerequisite: A in French I or French IB and permission of current instructor.

French III

Students build on skills learned in previous French courses to establish a firm foundation upon which to develop their language ability. The class is conducted primarily in French. The main goal is to continue developing all modes of communication (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational) through extensive work with audio, visual, and written sources intended for native speakers that help students learn grammar and vocabulary in context. Students develop strategies for using French to communicate creatively through the use of imaginative, expressive, and increasingly advanced language. They also learn more about cultures of the francophone world. Prerequisite: French II or French II Honors.

French III Honors

This course is designed for students demonstrating the interest and motivation to pursue more in-depth French studies. The program proceeds at a faster pace than French III and is conducted almost entirely in French. Students practice the skills of spoken and written French (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational) using materials from French television, movies, literary masterpieces, news articles, and songs by contemporary artists. Throughout the year, students develop and refine their command of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. This course is recommended for students interested in enrolling in Advanced Placement French Language and Culture because it provides specific tools needed for that course, such as how to interpret authentic sources and write French compositions. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - French II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - B in French II Honors or B+ in French II and permission of current instructor.

French IV

Conducted entirely in the target language, this course develops proficiency in spoken and written French and emphasizes the refinement of conversational and writing skills by building active and passive vocabulary. Analysis of various forms of communication, including movies, songs, magazine articles, Internet sources, and literary pieces intended for native speakers, is the basis for class discussions and compositions. The course also provides an in-depth review of grammar and syntax applicable to the Advanced Placement French Language and Culture curriculum. Second semester is partially devoted to the reading of Albert Camus's novel L'etranger. Prerequisite: French III or French III Honors.

French V: Contemporary Culture and Communication

The goal of this course is to help students develop and refine conversational skills while acquiring a stronger awareness and understanding of French and francophone cultures. Through in-depth study of current events, press, cinema, slang, and contemporary literature, students learn to compare francophone and American cultures. Through extensive exposure to cultural variations, students widen their intellectual horizons and develop respect and appreciation for differences. Writing is not the main objective of this course even though examinations and compositions are given throughout the year. Class discussion, which allows students to improve their fluency, is the predominant activity and serves as the primary means of assessing student performance. The homework load is limited and mainly consists of reading in preparation for class activities. The course is conducted entirely in French. Prerequisite: French IV, Advanced Placement French Language and Culture, or French Literature and Arts Honors.

AP French Language and Culture

This is the equivalent of a college course in advanced French language and culture, stressing listening comprehension, oral expression, reading, and writing. The course enables students to understand spoken French in a variety of situations and accents; read articles, prose, and verse excerpts of moderate difficulty and mature content; make presentations about various topics; and express ideas, critical opinions, and judgments accurately and resourcefully with reasonable fluency, both verbally and in writing. Particular attention is devoted to the following interdisciplinary themes: global challenges, science and technology, personal and public identities, contemporary life, families and communities, and beauty and aesthetics. This course may be taken in the fourth or fifth year of study and prepares students to take the Advanced Placement French Language and Culture examination in May. Prerequisite: B+ in French IV or French III Honors or A in French III and permission of current instructor.

French Literature and Arts Honors

This course is designed for advanced French students who want to continue their French studies and apply their linguistic mastery to French and francophone literature. Students focus on reading comprehension of full-length literary works; text analysis, with appropriate use of literary vocabulary; writing well-structured essays on literary topics; and sophisticated in-class discussion of works. Quarterly oral presentations allow students to explore a discipline of their choice related to a literary period analyzed in class. Students read extensively to analyze literature and to develop and deepen their understanding and perspective through the use of film, music, and art of the period. Students should have a strong background in oral and written French. This course may be taken in the fifth or sixth year of study. Prerequisite: French V: Contemporary Culture and Communication or B in Advanced Placement French Language and Culture and permission of current instructor.

Latin I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to the Latin language and Roman culture. It covers the curricula of Latin IA and Latin IB.

Latin II

Students improve their reading and analytical skills by progressing toward authentic Latin texts and doing Latin composition exercises to develop mastery of Latin syntax. Vocabulary skills are improved with emphasis on derivational morphology. Advanced grammatical concepts are covered in detail, including relative clauses, participles and the ablative absolute construction, passive voice, subjunctive mood, and indirect statements. Cultural projects cover Roman politics and literature, preparing students to read the texts assigned in more advanced courses. Prerequisite: Latin IB or Latin I.

Latin III

Students learn to read and translate literary prose, building on the grammatical foundation laid by previous Latin courses. For the first time, authentic Latin texts are read, translated, and analyzed. Intermediate grammatical topics, such as indirect statement and subjunctive constructions, are reviewed. Students expand their vocabularies and learn advanced grammar, including cum clauses, conditionals, gerunds and gerundives, and independent subjunctives. This course aims to further educate students in classical civilization, including topics such as Roman culture, Roman history, classical mythology, and the cultural ramifications of classical civilization beyond the ancient world. Prerequisite: Latin II.

Latin III Honors

During the first semester, this course reviews vocabulary, grammar, and syntax presented in Latin IA, Latin IB, and Latin II using a literary-based approach to sharpen reading skills and the analysis of literary prose. The remaining uses of dependent subjunctive clauses and further uses of participles are introduced. The second semester covers advanced grammatical topics, including cum clauses, conditionals, gerunds and gerundives, and independent subjunctives, using Latin poetry in its original context. Authentic texts, including Vergil's Aeneid, Latin epigraphy, and other materials, are examined. This course proceeds at a faster pace, covers increasingly complex topics, and demands more reading of Latin texts than does the Latin III course. Students must do more work on their own and with less help from the instructor. Written quizzes on both previously seen and sight material and tests comprise more of the grade in Latin III Honors than in Latin III. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - Latin II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - A- in Latin II and permission of current instructor.

Latin IV

Students in these courses improve their translation skills while reading some of the greatest works by the most celebrated Roman writers. Readings are chosen from authors such as Catullus, Livy, Martial, Ovid, Cicero, Pliny the Younger, Horace, Vergil, and Plautus. Attention is given to the historical background and literary merits of each text. Advanced grammatical constructions and rhetorical figures are reviewed and metrics introduced. In-class activities include reading, comprehension of texts without translation, discussion of the cultural background of the texts, sight translation, and exercises designed to help students increase their Latin proficiency. Prerequisite: Latin IV - Latin III or Latin III Honors; Latin V - Latin IV or Advanced Placement Latin.

Latin V

Students in these courses improve their translation skills while reading some of the greatest works by the most celebrated Roman writers. Readings are chosen from authors such as Catullus, Livy, Martial, Ovid, Cicero, Pliny the Younger, Horace, Vergil, and Plautus. Attention is given to the historical background and literary merits of each text. Advanced grammatical constructions and rhetorical figures are reviewed and metrics introduced. In-class activities include reading, comprehension of texts without translation, discussion of the cultural background of the texts, sight translation, and exercises designed to help students increase their Latin proficiency. Prerequisite: Latin IV - Latin III or Latin III Honors; Latin V - Latin IV or Advanced Placement Latin.

Latin Literature Honors

This course is designed for advanced Latin students who have successfully completed Advanced Placement Latin and wish to continue their study of Latin language and Roman society and culture. Students read challenging and substantial passages of Latin poetry and prose to develop their facility with the language, an appreciation for the variety of Latin styles from one historical period to the next, and an ability to analyze and interpret a text. The legacy of the Latin language and classical literature is of primary interest, and students read Latin outside of the classical time period to appreciate the impact that classical literature has had and continues to have on art, music, and film. Students may take this course in the fifth or sixth year of the Latin program. Prerequisite: B in Advanced Placement Latin and permission of current instructor.

AP Latin

This course focuses on two texts from the core periods of the Late Republic and the Principate: Caesar's Gallic War and Vergil's Aeneid. Extensive passages from both works are read in Latin. Most class time is spent reading, translating, and discussing the texts. Comprehension skills are developed as students read poetry and prose from previously seen and sight material and reflect critically on each selection. The texts are put into historical and cultural contexts and attention is given to the issues of war and peace, empire, ethnicity, leadership, and historiography. Students also read portions of both works in English. The goal is to read Caesar and Vergil with a critical eye and with historical and literary sensitivity. Students must take the Advanced Placement Latin examination in May. Prerequisite: B+ in Latin V, Latin IV, or Latin III Honors or A in Latin III and permission of current instructor.

Directed Study: Latin

This advanced course provides students with the opportunity to read authors and selections that are not a part of the regular Latin program. The class also introduces students to secondary material to help deepen their understanding of the works being studied. Prerequisite: Latin V or Latin Literature Honors, taken previously or concurrently, and permission of current instructor.

Spanish I

This intensive course for students with no previous world-language experience, and students who want to start a new language, is designed to give a solid introduction to Spanish. It covers the curricula of Spanish IA and Spanish IB using a similar approach based on real-world tasks and cultural themes.

Spanish II

Students improve reading, listening, speaking, and writing skills. Moving at a faster pace, students strengthen their command of all topics introduced in Spanish IA and Spanish IB while expanding their vocabulary. Hispanic cultures, oral conversations, written compositions, and multimedia presentations are the foci of the program. Students practice using contextualized vocabulary and grammatical concepts creatively and accurately to complete communicative tasks. Prerequisite: Spanish IB or Spanish I.

Spanish II Honors

This course is designed for students demonstrating the interest and motivation to pursue the study of Spanish at a more accelerated pace. Students develop all modes of communication (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational). Student learning centers on audio, visual, and written sources intended for native speakers. Students move beyond talking about themselves and their immediate community to talking about ideas and problems that affect society and the world. They develop strategies for communicating exclusively in Spanish and increase their knowledge of the Spanish-speaking world and its cultures. Prerequisite: A in Spanish I or Spanish IB and permission of current instructor.

Spanish III

Students build on skills learned in previous Spanish courses to establish a firm foundation upon which to develop their language ability. The main goal is to continue developing all modes of communication (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational). Students work extensively with audio, visual, and written sources intended for native speakers that help them learn grammar and vocabulary in context. Students develop strategies for using Spanish to communicate creatively through the use of imaginative, expressive, and increasingly advanced language. They also learn more about cultures of the Spanish-speaking world. Prerequisite: Spanish II or Spanish II Honors.

Spanish III Honors

This course is designed for students demonstrating the interest and motivation to pursue more in-depth Spanish studies. The program proceeds at a faster pace than Spanish III and is conducted almost entirely in Spanish. Students practice the skills of spoken and written Spanish (interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational) using materials from Spanish television, movies, literary works, news articles, and songs by contemporary artists. Students develop and refine their command of grammar, syntax, and vocabulary. This course is recommended for students interested in enrolling in Advanced Placement Spanish Language and Culture because it provides specific tools needed for that course, such as how to interpret authentic sources and write persuasive essays in Spanish. Prerequisite: Grade 9 - Spanish II; Grades 10, 11, or 12 - B in Spanish II Honors or B+ in Spanish II and permission of current instructor.

Spanish IV

This course emphasizes an interactive and communicative approach to learning the Spanish language and about Spanish cultures. Students strengthen their language skills by communicating orally and in writing with other Spanish speakers, listening to and reading Spanish texts, viewing and interpreting works of art, and presenting their ideas to an audience. A curriculum emphasizing Hispanic culture reflects issues of interest to today's high-school students, providing them with opportunities to exchange opinions, make connections to content from other courses, and compare cultural elements from different Spanish-speaking societies. The course stimulates creative, critical thinking through activities that require students to argue, persuade, analyze, and interpret other points of view. Practice of grammatical structures and vocabulary focus on communication in meaningful contexts. Prerequisite: Spanish III or Spanish III Honors.

Spanish V: Interdisciplinary Hispanic Studies

The goal of this course is to help students develop and refine conversational skills while acquiring a stronger awareness and understanding of Spanish and Spanish-speaking cultures. Through in-depth study of current events, cinema, and contemporary literature, students learn to compare Spanish-speaking and American cultures. Through extensive exposure to cultural variations, students widen their intellectual horizons and develop respect and appreciation for differences. Class discussion, which allows students to improve their fluency, is the predominant class activity and serves as the primary means of assessing student performance. The homework load is limited and consists mainly of reading in preparation for class activities. This course is conducted entirely in Spanish. Prerequisite: Spanish IV or higher.

AP Spanish Language and Culture

This accelerated course develops creative and critical thinking skills, while studying complex thematic units as outlined by the College Board. There is a comparative cultural component as these themes are explored in twenty-one Spanish-speaking countries throughout the world. The course focuses on speaking, listening, writing, and reading in formal and informal contexts. The reading- and listening- comprehension sections feature materials that include articles from newspapers and magazines and excerpts from books, literary works, and short stories. Formal persuasive essays and oral presentations, short paragraphs responding to emails, and simulated conversations also use materials created by and for native speakers. The goal is to develop students' interpretive, interpersonal, and presentational communication skills in the Spanish language. This course may be taken in the fourth or fifth year of study and prepares students for the Advanced Placement Spanish Language and Culture examination in May. Prerequisite: Spanish V: Interdisciplinary Hispanic Studies, B+ in Spanish IV or Spanish III Honors, or A in Spanish III, and permission of current instructor.

AP Spanish Literature and Culture

This course introduces students to the formal study of Peninsular Spanish, Latin American, and United States Hispanic literature through global, historical, and contemporary cultural contexts. The goal is to provide opportunities for students to develop interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational communication skills. Critical reading, analytical writing, and researching are emphasized. Course objectives also include sharpening critical-thinking and making interdisciplinary connections using media including music, art, documentary films, radio, and television. Students are expected to participate in class discussions, read extensively, and express themselves in correct and idiomatic Spanish. Class activities, conducted entirely in Spanish, include lectures, discussions, and small-group work. This course prepares students to take the Advanced Placement Spanish Literature and Culture examination in May. Prerequisite: Advanced Placement Spanish Language and Culture and permission of current instructor.

Post-AP Spanish Seminar

This course offers students the opportunity to use their advanced Spanish- language skills in creative and analytical ways. Those skills may be applied to a wide range of topics, from art and literature to current events, economics, history, politics, and social studies. The seminar focuses on the history of Spain and Latin America as well as on contemporary political and social issues related to both regions. It includes historical analysis from the ancient, or pre-Colombian, period through modern times, including discovery of the New World, independence of the colonies, and contemporary issues. The course is conducted entirely in Spanish and involves daily reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Students are expected to read four to five pages every day. The material is discussed in class, and videos related to the historical events and reading material are viewed. Historical movies are viewed every few units. Four research papers, one within each quarter, are due in lieu of examinations. Prerequisite: Advanced Placement Spanish Language and Culture or Advanced Placement Spanish Literature.

Directed Study: Ancient Greek

This course provides students with an introduction to Attic Greek, the Greek of Thucydides, Plato, and the Greek tragedians. The class also explores various aspects of ancient Greek culture to place the language within its historical and cultural contexts. A background in classical languages is helpful, but not required. Corequisite: Concurrent enrollment in another core World Languages class.

Directed Study: Beginning Italian Lang and Culture

Students are introduced to Italian culture and begin using the language in a conversational fashion. As students progress, the extent to which classes are conducted in Italian increases.

Directed Study: Int/Adv Italian Lang and Culture

Students continue to explore Italian language and culture and use the language to converse. The class, conducted entirely in Italian, includes a gradual incorporation of literature excerpts, press articles, and Italian cinema. Prerequisite: Directed Study: Beginning Italian Language and Culture and permission of current instructor.

Directed Study: German I

This course introduces German language and culture, covering all cases and verb tenses. Students must work independently and make time to listen to audio recordings and watch video presentations between classes. The course uses audio materials featuring native speakers and texts providing grammatical explanations and practice materials. Internet materials add cultural and linguistic enrichment. Individual use of course-related CDs at home is required.

Directed Study: German II

Students continue to explore basic concepts, vocabulary, and new tenses, such as the past perfect, passive, and subjunctive, and expand their knowledge of German culture and customs through discussions and increasingly advanced reading selections. Conducted in German, spoken language is also emphasized through increased exposure to idiomatic expressions. Short essays and cultural reports improve students' written German. Prerequisite: Directed Study: German I and permission of current instructor.